The Organiser Programming Language (OPL) is a high level language which has developed from a number of other languages:
The language is designed to be:
The language is stack based; all code is held on the stack as are all intermediate results. To achieve speed the source code is translated into an intermediate code (Q code) before it is run.
All variables in OPL are held in one of three forms:
All this can either be simple variables or field variables.
All variables are zeroed when declared by a LOCAL, GLOBAL, OPEN or CREATE statements.
OPL is a procedure base language, a number of procedures normally go to make up a program. Up to 16 parameters can be passed to a procedure which always returns a variable.
When a procedure is called a header is placed on the stack, followed by space for variables declared and the Q code itself. When a procedure returns all the stack is freed for use by other procedures. This allows overlaying of code so that programs can run which are substantially bigger than the available memory on the machine.
Parameters passed to a procedure may be integer, floating point or string. They are passed by value. On the stack they are in reverse order to the order they are input.
For example the statement "PROC:(12,17.5,"ABC")" will generate the following stack entry before the procedure PROC is called:
high memory 00 12 00 ; Integer type 00 00 00 00 50 17 01 00 01 ; Floating point type 03 41 42 43 ; "ABC" 02 ; String type low memory 03 ; Parameter count
Memory addresses in OPL are held as integers. Pack addresses are held in 3 bytes. In the CM operating system the most significant byte is ignored.
An integer is a number between 32767 and -32768. It is stored in memory as a single word. In the source code of the language an integer may be input in hexadecimal by preceding the number by a '$', so $FFFF is a valid number and equal to -1.
A number in an OPL program will be taken as integer if it is in the integer range with the one exception, -32768 is taken as a floating point number. The reason for this is that the translator translates a negative number as the absolute value, followed by a unary minus operator. 32768 is outside the range for integers and so is translated as a floating point number. A small increase in speed and compactness can be obtained by writing negative integers in hexadecimal.
It is very important to anticipate what is taken as integer. For example:
30001/2 is the integer 15000 but 40001/2 is floating point number 20000.5.
To ensure that a number is taken as a floating point number just add a trailing period. '2' is an integer, '2.' is a floating point number.
The calculator translates numbers as floating point. If you wish to put an integer into the calculator you must use the function INT. So, for example, from the calculator:
passes the integer 10 to the procedure PRICE.
17.2.6 FLOATING POINT
Floating point numbers are in the range +/-9.99999999999E99 to +/-1E-99. They are held in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) in 8 bytes; 6 bytes for the mantissa, 1 byte for the exponent, and 1 for the sign.
The decimal number -153 is held as:
00 00 00 00 30 15 02 80
where the last byte is the sign byte (either 00 or 80) and the preceding byte the exponent.
The decimal number .0234567 is held as:
00 00 00 67 45 23 FE 00.
It is possible for the exponent to go out of range, e.g. 1E99*10 or 1E-99/10. This is reported as an EXPONENT RANGE error.
When floating point numbers are translated they are held in a more compact form. The first byte contains both the sign, in the most significant bit, and the number of bytes following. The next bytes are the significant bytes of the mantissa, the final byte is the exponent.
In Q code the decimal number -153 is represented as:
83 30 15 02.
The decimal number .0234567 is represented as:
04 47 45 23 FE
This compact form is always preceded by a QI_STK_LIT_NUM operator.
Strings are up to 255 characters long, with a preceding length byte. The string "QWERTY" is held as:
06 51 57 45 52 54 59
All string variables, except field strings, are preceded by that variable's maximum length, as declared in the LOCAL or GLOBAL statement.
All strings in OPL have this format. For example when using USR$ the machine code should return with the X register pointing at the length byte of the string to be returned.
One dimensional arrays are supported for integers, floating point numbers and strings. Multi-dimensional arrays can be easily simulated by the use of integer arithmetic.
Like all other variables, arrays are held on the stack. In the case of string arrays the maximum string length is the first byte, the next word contains the array size, this is followed by data. So, for example,
LOCAL A$(5,3),B%(2),C(3) A$(4)="AB" C(1)=12345
initially sets up memory as follows (from low memory to high memory):
High memory 00 00 00 00 ; 5st element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 4nd element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 3rd element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 2th element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 1th element of A$() 00 05 ; array size of A$() 03 ; max string length of A$() 00 00 ; 2st element of B%() 00 00 ; 1st element of B%() 00 02 ; array size of B%() 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ; 3rd element of C() 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ; 2nd element of C() 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ; 1st element of C() Low memory 00 03 ; array size of C()
After running the procedure it looks like:
High memory 00 00 00 00 ; 5th element of A$() 02 41 42 00 ; 4th element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 3rd element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 2nd element of A$() 00 00 00 00 ; 1st element of A$() 00 05 ; array size of A$() 03 ; max string length of A$() 00 00 ; 2st element of B%() 00 00 ; 1st element of B%() 00 02 ; array size of B%() 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ; 3rd element of C() 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ; 2nd element of C() 00 00 00 50 34 12 04 00 ; 1st element of C() Low memory 00 03 ; array size of C()
The string and array limits are inserted into the variable space after it has been zeroed. This process is referred to as "fixing up" the variables.
Only available memory limits the size of arrays.
17.2.9 TYPE CONVERSION
Automatic type conversion takes place where possible. For instance:
A=10 and A=FLT(10)
produce exactly the same Q code. Whereas:
has different Q code. All three place the floating point number 10 into the variable A.
When expressions are evaluated the standard left to right rule is applied with type integer being maintained as long as possible. So, for example:
generates an "INTEGER OVERFLOW" error. But :
does not. This applies to any sub-expressions inside brackets, so:
generates the overflow error.
17.2.10 RECORDS AND FIELDS
A file consists of a file name record with a number of data records.
A record contains at least one character and at most 254 characters.A record may contain up to 16 fields, delimited by the TAB character (ASCII 9).
Strings are held as the ASCII characters, numbers are held in the ASCII form. So for example after:
OPEN "A:ABC",A,A%,B,C$ A.A=12 A.B=3.4 A.C$="XYZ"
the file buffer contains:
len tab tab 0A 31 32 09 33 2E 34 09 58 59 5A.
When a file is opened the field names are given. The field names and types are not fixed and may be varied from OPEN to OPEN. When a numeric field is accessed the contents are converted from ASCII to integer or floating point. Should this conversion fail the error "STR TO NUM FAIL" is reported.
When searching for a particular field the field name is matched with the field name buffer (see section 18.104.22.168) and the corresponding field split out of the file buffer using UT$SPLT.
Note that any string can be assigned to a string field but that if it includes a TAB character it will generate an extra field. For example:
OPEN "A:ABC",A,A$,B$,C$ A.B$="Hello" A.A$="AB"+CHR$(9)+"CD" PRINT A.C$ GET
will print "Hello" to the screen. The file buffer contains:
0B 41 42 09 43 44 09 48 65 6C 6C 6F
Saving data in ASCII is simple but it is easy to see how data can be compressed by using BCD, hexadecimal or other techniques.
17.2.11 VARIABLE SCOPE
When a procedure is loaded all the LOCALs and GLOBALs declared in it are allocated space on the stack. This area is zeroed and the strings and arrays are fixed up. In other words, the maximum length of each string and the array sizes are filled in.
These variables remain in memory at fixed locations, until execution of the declaring procedure terminates. LOCAL variables are valid only in that procedure, whereas GLOBAL variables are valid in all procedures called by the declaring procedure.
See EXAMPLE 1 & 4.
If a variable used in a procedure is not declared LOCAL or GLOBAL in that procedure it is taken as external. The Q code contains a list of externals and these are resolved at run time.
Using the frame pointer, RTA_FP - see section 17.2.13, the previous procedures are checked for all entries in the GLOBAL tables. If a match is found the variable address is inserted in an indirection table. If an external is not found it is reported as an error.
See EXAMPLE 4.
Note that neither the LOCAL names nor the parameter names are present in the Q code, but that GLOBAL names are.
17.2.13 LANGUAGE POINTERS
There are three key pointers used by the language:
RTA_SP points at the lowest byte of the stack. So if an integer is stacked, RTA_SP is decremented by 2 and the word is saved at the address pointed to by RTA_SP.
RTA_PC points at the current operand/operator executed and is incremented after execution - except at the start of a procedure or a GOTO when RTA_PC is set up appropriately.
RTA_FP points into the header of the current procedure.
Each procedure header has the form:
Device (zero if top procedure) Return RTA_PC ONERR address BASE_SP RTA_FP points at: Previous RTA_FP Start address of the global name table Global name table Indirection table for externals/parameters
This is followed by the variables, and finally by the Q code.
RTA_FP points at the previous RTA_FP, so it is easy to jump up through all the procedures above. The language uses this when resolving external references and when handling errors.
See EXAMPLE 4.
17.2.14 ADDRESSING MODES
Local variables and global variables declared in the current procedure are accessed directly. A reference to such variables is by an offset from the current RTA_FP.
Parameters and externally declared global variables are accessed indirectly. The addresses of these variables are held in the indirection table, the required address in this table is found by adding the offset in the Q code to the current RTA_FP.
See EXAMPLE 4.
17.2.15 TOP LOOP
Each procedure consists of two parts, a header and Q code. The Q code contains all the operands and operators in a table that is run by the TOP LOOP.
The TOP LOOP controls the language, it performs the following functions:
Each operand stacks either a constant value or a pointer to a variable.
There are a number of types of operands. Operands are named after their type, the types are:
Integer INT Floating point NUM String STR Constants (i.e. not variables) CON Arrays ARR Simple (i.e. not array) SIM Offset from RTA_FP FP Indirect offset from RTA_FP IND Left side (i.e. assigns) LS Field FLD Stack byte/word LIT Refer to the fixed memories ABS
Internal Name Op + Bytes Added to the stack QI_INT_SIM_FP $00 2 The integer QI_NUM_SIM_FP $01 2 The floating point number QI_STR_SIM_FP $02 2 The string
These operands take the following word, add it to RTA_FP (see section 17.2.13) and stack the variable at that address.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Stack QI_INT_ARR_FP $03 2 Drops element number, adds an integer from the array QI_NUM_ARR_FP $04 2 Drops element number, adds a floating point number from the array QI_STR_ARR_FP $05 2 Drops element number, adds a string from the array
These operands take the following word, adds it to RTA_FP to get the start of the array. The required element number is dropped off the stack and checked against the maximum size of the array. The address of the element is then calculated and the variable stacked.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Added to the stack QI_NUM_SIM_ABS $06 1 Floating point number
This operand gives access to the calculators memories, M0 to M9. The operand is followed by the offset to the memory required.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Added to the stack QI_INT_SIM_IND $07 2 The integer QI_NUM_SIM_IND $08 2 The floating point number QI_STR_SIM_IND $09 2 The string
These operands take the following word, add it to RTA_FP, load the address at that address and stack the variable at that address.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Stack QI_INT_ARR_IND $0A 2 Drops element number, adds the integer from the array QI_NUM_ARR_IND $0B 2 Drops element number, adds the floating point number from the array QI_STR_ARR_IND $0C 2 Drops element number, adds the string from the array
These operands take the following word, adds it to RTA_FP, loads the address at that address to get the start of the array. The element of the array required is dropped off the stack, it is then checked against the maximum size of the array. The address of the element is then calculated and the variable stacked.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Added to the stack QI_LS_INT_SIM_FP $0D 2 The address of the integer + field flag QI_LS_NUM_SIM_FP $0E 2 The address of the floating point number + field flag QI_LS_STR_SIM_FP $0F 2 The maximum size + the address of the string + field flag QI_LS_INT_ARR_FP $10 2 The address of the integer from the array + field flag QI_LS_NUM_ARR_FP $11 2 The address of the floating point number from the array + field flag QI_LS_STR_ARR_FP $12 2 The maximum size + the address of the string from the array + field flag QI_LS_NUM_SIM_ABS $13 2 The address of the calculator memory + field flag QI_LS_INT_SIM_IND $14 2 The address of the integer + field flag QI_LS_NUM_SIM_IND $15 2 The address of the floating point number + field flag QI_LS_STR_SIM_IND $16 2 The maximum size + the address of the string + field flag QI_LS_INT_ARR_IND $17 2 The address of the integer from the array + field flag QI_LS_NUM_ARR_IND $18 2 The address of the floating point number from the array + field flag QI_LS_STR_ARR_IND $19 2 the maximum size + the address of the string from the array + field flag
These operands correspond to their right side equivalents. In the case of strings the maximum length is stacked first. Then, in all cases, the address of the variable is stacked. The field flag byte is then stacked, in all these cases it is zero to show that it is not a field reference.
See EXAMPLE 1.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Stack QI_INT_FLD $1A 1 Drops the field name, adds the integer QI_NUM_FLD $1B 1 Drops the field name, adds the floating point number QI_STR_FLD $1C 1 Drops the field name, adds the string
These operands are followed by a logical file name, 0,1,2 or 3, which says which logical file to use. First it looks for the field name in the Field Name Symbol Table. If it is found the corresponding field is split from the corresponding File Buffer. If it is a string it is immediately placed on the stack. If it is numeric it is converted from ASCII to the relevant format and placed on the stack.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Stack QI_LS_INT_FLD $1D 1 Stacks the logical file name + field flag QI_LS_NUM_FLD $1E 1 Stacks the logical file name + field flag QI_LS_STR_FLD $1F 1 Stacks the logical file name + field flag
These operands stacks the logical file, the byte following the operand, and the field flag which in this case is non-zero. All the work is done by the assign.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Added to the stack QI_STK_LIT_BYTE $20 1 The byte QI_STK_LIT_WORD $21 2 The word
Stacks the following byte or word. QI_STK_LIT_WORD is identical to QI_INT_CON.
Internal Name Op + Bytes Added to the stack QI_INT_CON $22 2 Integer QI_NUM_CON $23 * Floating point number (see section 17.2.6) QI_STR_CON $24 * String
Stacks the constant value following.
Operators generally do things to the variables already on the stack.
17.4.1 ERRORS, CALLS AND PARAMETERS
In the following section if an operand cannot return an error then no errors are listed.
Any access to a device can result in the following errors. They are no given explicitly as error for that operand/operator:
ER_FL_NP - no pack ER_PK_IV - unknown pack ER_DV_CA - bad device name and if the pack was not blank ER_PK_NB - pack not blank
When writing to a pack the following are always possible:
ER_FL_PF - pack full ER_PK_RO - read only pack ER_PK_DE - write error
If the operator calls an operating system then that is listed. If no calls are given then the run time code handles it all itself. In general there is no difference between call with a $ and with an _, the $ calls are called through SWIs whereas the _ calls are made directly. Direct calls are faster, but SWIs can be redirected for the addition of extra features. See section 5.1.1 on calling system services.
If there is more than one parameter they are listed. The values are stacked in order. So para1 is stacked before para2 - when the operator is called the last parameter is the one pointed to by the RTA_SP.
17.4.2 LOGICAL AND ARITHMETIC COMPARE OPERATORS
Internal Name Op Stack QCO_LT_INT $27 Drops 2 INTs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_LTE_INT $28 Drops 2 INTs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_GT_INT $29 Drops 2 INTs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_GTE_INT $2A Drops 2 INTs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_NE_INT $2B Drops 2 INTs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_EQ_INT $2C Drops 2 INTs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_ADD_INT $2D Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_SUB_INT $2E Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_MUL_INT $2F Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_DIV_INT $30 Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_POW_INT $31 Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_UMIN_INT $32 Drops an INT, returns result as an INT QCO_NOT_INT $33 Drops an INT, returns result as an INT QCO_AND_INT $34 Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_OR_INT $35 Drops 2 INTs, returns result as an INT QCO_LT_NUM $36 Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_LTE_NUM $37 Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_GT_NUM $38 Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_GTE_NUM $39 Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_NE_NUM $3A Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_EQ_NUM $3B Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_ADD_NUM $3C Drops 2 NUMs, returns result as an NUM QCO_SUB_NUM $3D Drops 2 NUMs, returns result as an NUM QCO_MUL_NUM $3E Drops 2 NUMs, returns result as an NUM QCO_DIV_NUM $3F Drops 2 NUMs, returns result as an NUM QCO_POW_NUM $40 Drops 2 NUMs, returns result as an NUM QCO_UMIN_NUM $41 Drops a NUM, returns result as an NUM QCO_NOT_NUM $42 Drops a NUM, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_AND_NUM $43 Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_OR_NUM $44 Drops 2 NUMs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_LT_STR $45 Drops 2 STRs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_LTE_STR $46 Drops 2 STRs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_GT_STR $47 Drops 2 STRs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_GTE_STR $48 Drops 2 STRs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_NE_STR $49 Drops 2 STRs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_EQ_STR $4A Drops 2 STRs, returns 0 or -1 as an INT QCO_ADD_STR $4B Drops 2 STRs, returns result as a STR
The compares drop whatever is on the stack and return an integer either TRUE(-1) or FALSE(0).
NOT, AND, and OR are bitwise on INTs, but on NUMs they are logical. So the following equalities are true:
NOT(3.0) = 0 (3.0 AND 5.0) = -1 (3.0 OR 5.0) = -1 NOT(3) = -4 (3 AND 5) = 1 (3 OR 5) = 7;
The string compares are case sensitive.
Divide by zero generates the error ER_FN_BA.
The function X^Y will generate ER_FN_BA if X zero and Y less than or equal to zero, X negative and Y non-integer.
NOTE VERY WELL: In the calculator all numeric constants are automatically converted to floating point. So in the calculator NOT(3) evaluates to 0, whereas NOT(INT(3)) is -4.
Note also: Outside the calculator a simple number is taken as an integer if is is less than 32768 and more than -32768, so in a procedure 10**10 gives an INTEGER OVERFLOW error.
17.5 COMMAND OPERATORS
Positions the cursor. OP: $4C OPL: AT Para1: New X position (1 to 16) Para2: New Y position (1 or 2) Stack: Drops the two integers on the stack Calls: DP$STAT Errors: ER_FN_BA - Bad parameter if either parameter out of range. Clears RTB_CRFL, the carriage return flag.
Beeps with a frequency of 460800/(39+para2). OP: $4D OPL: BEEP Para1: Integer duration in milliseconds Para2: Integer period Stack: Drops the two integers Calls: BZ_TONE Bugs: If para1 is negative BEEP returns immediately. Para2 is regarded as an unsigned word.
Break the execution of OPL. Note that this is not equivalent to the OPL word BREAK. OP: $26 Calls: UT_LEAV
Clears the screen. The cursor is homed to the top left. OP: $4E OPL: CLS Stack: No effect Calls: DP_CLRB
Set the cursor on or off. OP: $4F OPL: CURSOR ON, CURSOR OFF Stack: No effect Calls: DP$STAT Gets byte after operator, sets or clears most significant bit of DPB_CUST.
Enables or disables the ON/CLEAR key freeze and quit. OP: $50 OPL: ESCAPE ON, ESCAPE OFF Stack: Drops the integer on the stack Gets byte after operator, sets or clears RTA_ESCF.
Jump RTA_PC to a new location in the same procedure. OP: $51 OPL: GOTO, BREAK, CONTINUE, ELSE Stack: No effect Adds word after the operator to RTA_PC. See QCO_BRA_FALSE.
Turns off the machine. Does not terminate language execution. OP: $52 OPL: OFF Stack: No effect Calls: BT_SWOF This is exactly the same state as when the machine is turned off at the top level. The drain on the battery is minimal. See section 5.7.6.
Set up error handling. OP: $53 OPL: ONERR, ONERR OFF Stack: No effect The following word contains the offset to the address to jump to in the event of an error being detected. ONERR OFF is the same operator followed by a zero word. The ONERR address is saved in the header, see section 17.2.13.
If positive it pauses for that many 50 millisecond units, if negative it pauses for that many 50 millisecond units or until the first key press. If it is zero it waits for the next key press. OP: $54 OPL: PAUSE Stack: Drops the integer Bugs: If a key is pressed it is not removed from the input buffer, so it should be read by a KEY or GET function. Uses the 'SLP' processor instruction, so less power is used when PAUSEd compared to normal operation. It does however use more power than being switched off. See section 3.2.
Pokes a byte into memory. OP: $55 OPL: POKEB Para1: Address to write to Para2: Byte to be written Stack: Drops the two integers Errors: ER_FN_BA - Bad parameter Reports an error if para2 is not a byte. If the address is in the protected range $00 to $3F or $282 to $400 then it does nothing.
Pokes a word into memory. OP: $56 OPL: POKEW Para1: Address to write to Para2: Word to be written Stack: Drops the two integers on the stack Errors: ER_FN_BA - Bad parameter If the address is in the protected range $00 to $3F or $282 to $400 then it does nothing.
Generates an error condition. OP: $57 OPL: RAISE Stack: Drops the integer Errors: ER_FN_BA - Bad parameter If integer on the stack is not a byte it reports error. Otherwise it has exactly the same effect as if that error was generated. Errors generated by RAISE are handled in the normal way by ONERR. Using this command and ONERR the programmer can completely take-over the handling and reporting of errors. If the error is out of the range normally reported by the OS the message "*** ERROR ***" is reported. RAISE 0 is special as it does not report an error.
Set the seed of the random number generator. The sequence numbers generated by RND becomes repeatable. OP: $58 OPL: RANDOMIZE Stack: Drops the floating point number on the stack Calls: FN_RAND
Special operator used to vector to machine code. OP: $25 OPL: See below Stack: No effect Vectors via the contents of the location RTA_1VCT to machine code. The machine code should return with the carry flag set to report an error. If the ASCII value 1 is encountered in the OPL source code it is taken to be a SPECIAL call which returns an integer. A 2 is for a floating point return and 3 for a string. It is impossible to get these values into the source code from the editor, it must be generated by another program. For example if you want to write an evaluator for a spreadsheet and you want to add cell A1 to cell B1 you could poke in: 01 ????
Stops executing the language. OP: $59 OPL: STOP Resets RTA_SP, zeroes the file buffers by calling AL_ZERO and leaves the language.
Disables the reporting of any error arising from the execution of the following operator. Instead the error number is saved in RTB_EROR which can be read by the function ERR. OP: $5A OPL: TRAP Stack: No effect Clears RTB_EROR and sets the trap flag RTB_TRAP. The following operators can be used with TRAP: APPEND BACK CLOSE COPY CREATE DELETE ERASE EDIT FIRST INPUT LAST NEXT OPEN POSITION RENAME UPDATE USE If no error occurs these operators clear RTB_TRAP. Most of these are file-related operator. The programmer will frequently either need to report errors arising from the operators himself or handle them in a discriminating way. For example: TRAP OPEN "B:XYZ",A,A$ IF ERR TRAP OPEN "C:XYZ",A,A$ IF ERR CLS :PRINT "FILE XYZ NOT" :PRINT "FOUND" BEEP 100,100 :GET :STOP ENDIF ENDIF INPUT and EDIT are different. TRAP changes the conditions under which they exit. "EDIT A$" will not exit on the ON/CLEAR key, "TRAP EDIT A$" will exit with RTB_EROR set to ER_RT_BK. When inputting a number without the TRAP option, the routine will not exit until a valid number is input; however with TRAP any input will be accepted and the corresponding error condition placed in RTB_EROR. See QCO_INPUT_INT, QCO_INPUT_NUM, QCO_INPUT_STR, QCO_EDIT.
17.6 FILE OPERATORS
Adds the current record buffer to the current file as a new record. OP: $5B OPL: APPEND Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$WRIT Bugs: If the current length of the current record is zero, it is automatically made non-zero by adding a TAB, the field delimiter. The contents of the file buffer are saved at the end of the current device. The first byte of the buffer is the length of the buffer.
Closes the current file. OP: $5C OPL: CLOSE Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, AL$ZCEL Bugs: After closing the file it looks for another file to make current. If several files are open it is unpredictable which will become current. CLOSE has no effect on the file itself, it checks that the file is open, clears the record type in RTT_FIL, and zeroes the two cells.
Copies a file from one device to another. If the target already exists the data is appended. OP: $5D OPL: COPY Stack: Drops the names of the two files Errors: ER_FL_NX - file does not exist ER_PK_CH - changed pack Calls: fl$copy Bugs: You cannot copy to the same device.
Creates a file. OP: $5E OPL: CREATE Stack: Drops the name of the file to be created Errors: ER_FL_EX - file already exists ER_AL_NR - out of memory Calls: FL$CRET, AL$GROW, FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ See EXAMPLE 2.
Deletes a file. OP: $5F OPL: DELETE Stack: Drops the name of the file to be deleted. Errors: ER_FL_NX - file does not exist ER_RT_FO - file open Calls: FL$DELN Checks that the file is not open. Deletes all records, starting with the first, and finally the file name record of the file.
Erases the current record of the current file. OP: $60 OPL: ERASE Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_FL_EF - end of file Calls: FL$ERAS, FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ Bugs: The current record becomes the record following the erased record. If, after the erase, FL$READ returns an 'END OF FILE', the length of the current record is set to zero and the current record number set to the number of records (as found by FL$SIZE) plus one. 'END OF FILE' error will be generated if already at the end of the file. This includes the case of a file with no records.
Goes to the first record of the current file. OP: $61 OPL: FIRST Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ Bugs: No error reported if there are no records.
Goes to the last record of the current file. OP: $62 OPL: LAST Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$SIZE, FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ Bugs: No error reported if there are no records.
Goes to the next record. OP: $63 OPL: NEXT Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$NEXT, FL$READ Bugs: No error reported if at the end of file. If FL$READ returns an "END OF FILE" error, the length of the current record is set to zero and the current record number set to the number of records (as found by FL$SIZE) plus one.
Steps back one record. OP: $64 OPL: BACK Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$BACK Bugs: No error reported if already on the first record.
Open a file. OP: $65 OPL: OPEN Stack: Drop the name of the file. Errors: ER_RT_FO - file open Calls: FL$OPEN, FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ OPEN has exactly the same form as CREATE. See EXAMPLE 2.
Position at that record. OP: $66 OPL: POSITION Stack: Drops the integer Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ Bugs: If the FL$READ returns an 'END OF FILE', the length of the current record is set to zero and the current record number set to the number of records (as found by FL$SIZE) plus one.
Renames a file. OP: $67 OPL: RENAME Stack: Drops the two file names Errors: ER_RT_FO - file open ER_FL_NX - file exists ER_FL_NX - file does not exist Calls: FL$RENM Erases the file name record and writes a new one.
Updates a record. OP: $68 OPL: UPDATE Stack: No effect Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Calls: FL$ERAS, FL$WRIT, FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET, FL$READ Bugs: If the APPEND fails, with 'PAK FULL' for example, the original record is already erased. It deletes the current record in the current file and then APPENDs the contents of the buffer.
Changes the current file. OP: $69 OPL: USE Stack: No effect Errors: ER_TR_BL - bad logical name (logical name not in use) Takes the byte following the operator and after checking it makes it the new current logical file. See section 17.11.3.
17.7 OTHER OPERATORS
Set the shift state of the keyboard. OP: $6A OPL: KSTAT Stack: Drops integer Errors: ER_FN_BA - function argument error Calls: KB$STAT Use KSTAT to change the upper/lower alpha/numeric case: 1 alpha, upper case (default setting) 2 alpha, lower case 3 numeric, upper case 4 numeric, lower case
Edits a string. OP: $6B OPL: EDIT Stack: Drop the left side reference to string Errors: ER_RT_BK - ON/CLEAR key pressed ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_RT_NF - field not found ER_RT_RB - record too big Calls: ED$EDIT If the string to be edited is a field then the maximum length of the string is 252. Otherwise the maximum length allowed is the length of the string as defined in the LOCAL or GLOBAL statement. The string to be edited is copied into RTT_BUF. Once the string is edited it is assigned to the source. If the EDIT is preceded by TRAP then the edit will exit on the ON/CLEAR key with the error condition ER_RT_BK. The string remains unchanged. Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared.
Input an integer. OP: $6C OPL: INPUT Stack: Drops the left side integer reference Errors: ER_RT_BK - ON/CLEAR key pressed ER_MT_IS - conversion to number failed ER_RT_IO - integer overflow ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_RT_NF - field not found ER_RT_RB - record too big Calls: ED$EDIT If the INPUT is preceded by TRAP then the input will exit on the ON/CLEAR key with the error condition ER_RT_BK. It will also exit if an invalid integer is input, e.g. 99999 or $1. If there is no TRAP then the INPUT will not exit on the ON/CLEAR key and invalid integers generate a '?' on the next line and the INPUT is repeated. Up to 6 characters, including leading spaces, are allowed. Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared.
Inputs a floating point number. OP: $6D OPL: INPUT Stack: Drops left side reference to floating point number Errors: ER_RT_BK - ON/CLEAR key pressed ER_MT_IS - conversion to number failed ER_RT_IO - integer overflow ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_RT_NF - field not found ER_RT_RB - record too big Calls: ED$EDIT If the INPUT is preceded by TRAP then the input will exit on the ON/CLEAR key with the error condition ER_RT_BK. It will also exit if an invalid floating point number is input, e.g. 999999999999999 or $1. If there is no TRAP then the INPUT will not exit on the ON/CLEAR key and invalid integers generate a '?' on the next line and the INPUT is repeated. Up to 15 characters, including leading spaces, are allowed. Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared.
Inputs a string. OP: $6E OPL: INPUT Stack: Drops left side reference to string Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_RT_NF - field not found ER_RT_RB - record too big Calls: ED$EDIT QCO_INPUT_STR is exactly equivalent to QCO_EDIT with an initial null string.
Prints an integer to the screen. OP: $6F OPL: PRINT Stack: Drops the integer Calls: UT$DISP Bugs: If the number $FFFF is assigned to an integer and then it is printed it will be represented as -1. Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared.
Prints a floating point number to the screen. OP: $70 OPL: PRINT Stack: Drops the floating point number Calls: UT$DISP Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared. The format in which a number is displayed is integer, decimal or scientific in that order of precedence.
Print a string to the screen. OP: $71 OPL: PRINT Stack: Drops the string Calls: UT$DISP Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared.
Prints a space to the screen. OP: $72 OPL: PRINT Stack: No effect Calls: UT$DISP This operator is generated by use of the ',' separator in a PRINT statement. Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared.
Print a carriage return to the screen. OP: $73 OPL: PRINT Stack: No effect Calls: UT$DISP If a PRINT, INPUT or EDIT statement is not followed by a ';' or ',' then this operator is automatically inserted. It is not acted on immediately; it sets the flag RTB_CRFL. Before execution of this operator RTB_CRFL is tested and, if set, a carriage return is sent to the screen and the flag cleared. Note that if a carriage return results in scrolling the screen there is an automatic delay; the length of this delay is defined by DPW_DELY which is in 50 millisecond units, the default being 10.
Sends an integer to the RS232. OP: $74 OPL: LPRINT Errors: ER_DV_NP - device missing ER_DV_CS - device load error Exactly as PRINT_INT, except the CR flag is not tested.
Send a floating point number to the RS232. OP: $75 OPL: LPRINT Errors: ER_DV_NP - device missing ER_DV_CS - device load error Exactly as PRINT_NUM, except the CR flag is not tested.
Send a string to the RS232. OP: $76 OPL: LPRINT Errors: ER_DV_NP - device missing ER_DV_CS - device load error Exactly as PRINT_STR, except the CR flag is not tested.
Send a space character to the RS232. OP: $77 OPL: LPRINT Errors: ER_DV_NP - device missing ER_DV_CS - device load error Exactly as PRINT_SP, except the CR flag is not tested.
Send a carriage return to the RS232. OP: $78 OPL: LPRINT Errors: ER_DV_NP - device missing ER_DV_CS - device load error As PRINT_CR except it is acted on immediately.
Return from a procedure. OP: $79 OPL: RETURN Stack: Unwinds the procedure This operator follows the operator which stacks the return value. All procedures return a value. If no explicit value is returned then it will return integer zero for integer procedures, floating point zero for floating point procedures or a null string for string procedures. See EXAMPLE 5.
For an integer procedure this is the default return. OP: $7A OPL: RETURN Stack: Stack the integer zero and then unwind the procedure Stacks default return value, then exactly the same as QCO_RETURN.
For an floating point procedure this is the default return. OP: $7B OPL: RETURN Stack: Stack a floating point zero and then unwind the procedure Stacks default return value, then exactly the same as QCO_RETURN.
For a string procedure this is the default return. OP: $7C OPL: RETURN Stack: Adds a null string and the unwinds the procedure Stacks default return value, on the stack, then exactly the same as QCO_RETURN.
Call a procedure. OP: $7D OPL: procnam: Stack: Initialises procedure Errors: ER_RT_PN - procedure not found ER_RT_NP - wrong number of parameters ER_RT_UE - undefined external ER_EX_TV - parameter type mis-match ER_AL_NR - out of memory ER_GN_BL - test explicitly for low battery error Calls: PK$RBYT, PK$RWRD, PK$READ, DV$LKUP, DV$VECT First checks to see if a language extension of that name has been booted into memory (see section 22.214.171.124). If not it searches the 4 devices for an OPL procedure of the right name. It starts with the default device. So if the procedure called was on C: then it searches in the order C:, D:, A: and B:. If a language extension has been found (for example LINPUT) it calls the relevant vector and the device is then responsible for checking the parameters and handling the stack. See section 17.12.2. If it is an OPL procedure the header information is read in and the memory required checked. The external references are then checked and the fixups on the strings and arrays performed. See EXAMPLE 4. The Q code is then read in, and RTA_PC and RTA_SP are set to their new values.
Branches if the integer on the stack is false. OP: $7E OPL: UNTIL, WHILE, IF, ELSEIF Stack: Drop the offset Adds the integer following the operator to RTA_PC if the value on the stack is zero.
Assign an integer to a variable. OP: $7F OPL: = Stack: Drops the integer and the integer reference Errors: ER_RT_RB - field too big ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_RT_NF - field not found ER_RT_RB - record too big At the start of the operand the stack looks like: High memory Address of integer variable 0 (field flag) Low memory Integer or: High memory Field name Logical file name (0,1,2 or 4) 1 (field flag) Low memory Integer If the assign is to a field, it checks that the file is open, checks the field name and saves the value. If not a field it simply saves the integer to the address. See EXAMPLE 4.
Assigns a floating point number. OP: $80 OPL: = Stack: Drops the floating point number and the floating point reference Errors: ER_RT_RB - field too big ER_RT_FC - file not open ER_RT_NF - field not found ER_RT_RB - record too big Exactly the same as QCO_ASS_INT except it handles floating point numbers. See EXAMPLE 4.
Assigns a string. OP: $81 OPL: = Stack: Drops the string and the string reference Errors: ER_RT_RT - field too big ER_LX_ST - string too long Exactly the same as QCO_ASS_INT except it handles strings. See EXAMPLE 4.
Drops a byte off stack. OP: $82 OPL: - Stack: Drops byte
Drops a word off the stack. OP: $83 OPL: - Stack: Drops word Used internally to drop unwanted results off the stack, for example a statement "GET" which translates into RTF_GET,QCO_DROP_WORD.
Drops a floating point number off the stack. OP: $84 OPL: - Stack: Drops a floating point number Used internally to OPL when, for example, a floating point procedure returns a value that is not required.
Drops a string off the stack. OP: $85 OPL: - Stack: Drops a string off the stack Used internally to OPL when, for example, a string procedure returns a string that is not required.
Converts an integer into a floating point number. OP: $86 OPL: - Stack: Drops an integer, stacks a float Calls: MT$BTOF Bugs: Integers are always taken as signed. To make unsigned: A=I% :IF I%<0 :A=A+65536 :ENDIF Used for automatic type conversion.
Converts a floating point number to integer. OP: $87 OPL: - Stack: Drops float, stacks integer Errors: ER_RT_IO - integer overflow Calls: IM$DINT, IM$FLOI Bugs: Always rounds down, 3.9 becomes 3 and -3.9 becomes -4. Used for automatic type conversion.
Indicates where the field names end. OP: $88 OPL: OPEN, CREATE Stack: No effect Only used internally at the end of an OPEN or CREATE command. See EXAMPLE 2.
Runs machine code immediately after operator. OP: $89 OPL: - Stack: No effect Runs the code immediately after the operator as machine code. On return if there are no errors carry must be clear and the B register must be the number of bytes for RTA_PC to jump. If there is an error carry must be set and the B register should contain the number of the error to be reported. This cannot be generated from the editor.
17.8 INTEGER FUNCTIONS
These functions return integer values.
Returns the address of a numeric variable. OP: $8A OPL: ADDR Stack: Drops the 'left side' reference, stacks the address. Bugs: Cannot deal with elements of arrays, though they may be easily calculated. In the case of arrays ADDR returns the address of the first element which is immediately after the word giving the size of the array. So "PRINT PEEKW(ADDR(A%))" is exactly the same as "PRINT A%" and "PRINT PEEKW(ADDR(A%())) is the same as "PRINT A%(1)".
Returns the ASCII value of the first character of the string. OP: $8B OPL: ASC Stack: Drops the string, stacks an integer Bugs: If the string is zero length it returns zero.
Returns the current day of the month - in the range 1 to 31. OP: $8C OPL: DAY Stack: Stack an integer
Displays a string, a record or the last string displayed, using cursor keys for viewing and waiting for any other key to exit. OP: $8D OPL: DISP Para1: Integer: 1 - displays para2 0 - redisplays the last DISPed string (ignores para2) -1 - displays the current record (ignores para2) Para2: String to be displayed Stack: Drops the two parameters, stacks the exit key as an integer. Calls: UT$DISP Bugs: In the case para1 is zero it displays the contents of RTT_BUF. RTT_BUF is used by a number of other operand/operators, for instance by string adds. The display used is the same as that used by FIND in the top level. Each field, delimited by a TAB character, is on a different line. There is no limit to the number of fields.
Returns the current error value. OP: $8E OPL: ERR Stack: Stack the error number as an integer When the language starts running the value of RTB_EROR is zero. If an error is encountered and handled by a TRAP or ONERR the value remains until the next error or a TRAP command.
Finds a string in the current file. OP: $8F OPL: FIND Stack: Drops the search string, stacks the record number. Bugs: FIND does not do an automatic NEXT, the correct loop structure is: DO IF FIND "ABC" statement(s) ENDIF NEXT UNTIL EOF If no record is found zero is returned and the current record remains the same as before the FIND.
Returns the amount of free memory. OP: $90 OPL: FREE Stack: Stack the resulting integer. Calculates the amount of free memory by subtracting ALA_FREE from RTA_SP and then subtracting $100.
Get a single character. OP: $91 OPL: GET Stack: Stack the character as an integer. Calls: KB$GETK Bugs: The ON/CLEAR key returns 1. It can be difficult to break out of a tight loop with a GET using the ON/CLEAR, Q keys. With perseverance it is normally possible. If there is a key in the buffer it gets that key first. If no key is received the Organiser will turn itself off after the timeout. See section 7.4.1 and section 7.4.4.
Returns the current hour of the day - in the range 0 to 23. OP: $92 OPL: HOUR Stack: Stack the number as an integer.
Does an ABS on an integer. OP: $93 OPL: IABS Stack: Leaves the integer on the stack. Converts a negative integer to a positive integer. If ABS is used in place of IABS the result would be the same but the function would require two unnecessary type conversions. IABS is significantly faster than ABS.
Converts a floating point number to an integer. OP: $94 OPL: INT Stack: Drops float, stacks integer Errors: ER_RT_IO - integer overflow Calls: IM$DINT, IM$FLOI Bugs: Always rounds down, INT(3.9) is 3 and INT(-3.9) is -4. Identical to QCO_NUM_TO_INT.
Returns any key in the input buffer. Zero if no key is waiting. OP: $95 OPL: KEY Stack: Stack the integer Bugs: Except after an "ESCAPE OFF" statement, KEY cannot pick up the ON/CLEAR key.
Returns the length of the string. OP: $96 OPL: LEN Stack: Drops string, stacks the length as an integer
Locates one string in another, returns zero if not found. OP: $97 OPL: LOC Para1: String to be searched Para2: String to locate Stack: Drops the two strings, stacks the resulting position as an integer
Gives a menu of options. OP: $98 OPL: MENU Stack: Drops the string, stacks the exit item as an integer Calls: MN_AXDP Errors: ER_RT_MU - menu error ER_FN_BA - bad argument Bugs: In the input string the menu items are delimited by commas. Before MN_AXDP is called the string is converted to individual strings each terminated by a null word. It is possible to have too many items. Don't have spaces or tabs as part of menu items, they can have unpredictable effects. The normal input is a string with each menu item delimited by a comma. An item is selected either by a unique first letter or by positioning on that item and pressing the EXE key. If the menu exits by the ON/CLEAR key it returns zero.
Returns the current minute of the hour - in the range 0 to 59. OP: $99 OPL: MINUTE Stack: Stack the number as an integer.
Returns the current month of the year - in the range 0 to 11. OP: $9A OPL: MONTH Stack: Stack the number as an integer.
Peeks a byte at the given address. OP: $9B OPL: PEEKB Stack: Drops the address, stacks the result as an integer If the address is in the ranges $00-$3F and $282-$400 then it returns zero. These ranges are the processor registers and the custom chip's control addresses. See section 9.3.2 for more details. The informed user may access these addresses via machine code.
Peeks a word at the given address. OP: $9C OPL: PEEKW Stack: Drops the address, stacks the result as an integer See the comments after RTF_PEEKB.
Returns the size of the current record. OP: $9D OPL: RECSIZE Stack: Stack the size as an integer. Bugs: The maximum size of a record is 254, this includes the field separators. See 17.2.10 for more details.
Returns the current second of the minute - in the range 0 to 59. OP: $9E OPL: SECOND Stack: Stack the number as an integer.
Calls machine code. OP: $9F OPL: USR Para1: Address of the machine code Para2: The value to be passed in the D register Stack: Drops the parameters, stacks the X register on return
Returns the address of a string. OP: $C9 OPL: ADDR Stack: Stack the result Returns the address of the length byte, the byte after the the maximum length. In the case of an array it returns the address of the length byte of the first element of the array. So "ADDR(A$())-2" is the address of the size the array (a word) and "ADDR(A$())-3" is the address of the maximum string length (a byte).
View a string, or the last string viewed. OP: $A0 OPL: VIEW Para1: Line on which to view (1 or 2) Para2: String to be viewed Stack: Drops the parameters, stacks the exit character as an integer If the string is null it re-displays the last string VIEWed (which is held in RTT_BUF).
Returns the current year - in the range 0 to 99. OP: $A1 OPL: YEAR Stack: Stack the number as an integer
Returns the number of records in the current file. OP: $A2 OPL: COUNT Stack: Stack the result as an integer Calls: FL$SIZE
Returns TRUE if the position in the file is at the end of file. If the current record is the last record of the file, EOF returns FALSE. OP: $A3 OPL: EOF Stack: Stack result as an integer Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Bugs: If there are no records this returns true. Returns TRUE if the current record buffer is zero. When OPL appends a record with zero length it adds a TAB ($09) character so that it never actually saves a null string.
Returns TRUE is the file exists. OP: $A4 OPL: EXIST Stack: Drops string, stacks result Calls: FL$OPEN
Returns the current record number in the current file. OP: $A5 OPL: POS Stack: Stack the result Calls: FL$SETP, FL$RECT, FL$RSET Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Bugs: If no records still return 1.
17.9 FLOATING POINT FUNCTIONS
These functions return a floating point value.
Does an ABS on a floating point number. OP: $A6 OPL: ABS Stack: Leaves the floating point number on the stack. Calls: FN_ABS
Returns the arctangent of the input in radians. OP: $A7 OPL: ATAN Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_ATAN Bugs: Returns values in the range plus or minus pi/2
Returns the cosine of the input, the input being in radians. OP: $A8 OPL: COS Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_COS Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument if the absolute value is greater than 3141590.
Converts the input from radians to degrees. OP: $A9 OPL: DEG Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_DEG Bugs: All this does is multiply the input by 57.29...
Returns the value of e raise to the specified power. OP: $AA OPL: EXP Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_EXP Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument if the absolute value is greater than 229.
Converts an integer to floating point format. OP: $AB OPL: FLT Stack: Drops the input integer, stacks the result Calls: MT$BTOF Bugs: Integers are always taken as signed. To make unsigned: A=I% :IF I%<0 :A=A+65536 :ENDIF Exactly the same effect as QCO_INT_TO_NUM.
Rounds a floating point number down to a whole number. OP: $AC OPL: INTF Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: IM$DINT, IM$FLOI Essential to use INTF rather than INT if the number is out of the integer range.
Returns the natural logarithm of the input. OP: $AD OPL: LN Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument Calls: FN_LN Bugs: The input must be greater than 0.
Returns the base 10 logarithm of the input. OP: $AE OPL: LOG Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument Calls: FN_LOG Bugs: The input must be greater than 0.
Returns the number pi = 3.14159265359. OP: $AF OPL: PI Stack: Stack the result Calls: FN_PI
Converts the input number to radians. The inverse of DEG. OP: $B0 OPL: RAD Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_RAD Bugs: All this does is divide the input by 57.29...
Returns a pseudo-random number in the range 0(inclusive) to 1(exclusive). OP: $B1 OPL: RND Stack: Stack the result Calls: FN_RND
Returns the sine of the input, the input being in radians. OP: $B2 OPL: SIN Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_SIN Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument if the absolute value is greater than 3141590.
Returns the square root of the input. OP: $B3 OPL: SQR Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_SQRT Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument if negative
Returns the tangent of the input, the input being in radians. OP: $B4 OPL: TAN Stack: Drops the input floating point number, stacks the result Calls: FN_TAN Bugs: At the the discontinuities in TAN, pi/2, 3*pi/2, etc, the values returned are either greater than 1E10 or less than -1E10.
Returns the input string as a number. OP: $B5 OPL: VAL Stack: Drops the input string, stacks the result Errors: ER_MT_FL - conversion to number failed Calls: MT_BTOF Bugs: This routine insists that the whole string is used in the conversion, so VAL("12.34 ") generates an error. The null string also gives an error.
Returns the amount of space on the current device. OP: $B6 OPL: SPACE Stack: Stack the result as floating point number Calls: FL$SIZE Errors: ER_RT_FC - file not open Bugs: This may be longer than a word!
17.10 STRING FUNCTIONS
Returns the name of the first/next file on a device. OP: $B7 OPL: DIR$ Stack: Drops the input string, stack the resulting string Calls: FL$CATL Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument If the string is non-null it checks that it is of the form "A:" or "A". It splits out the device name and returns the first file name preceded by the device name. If the string is null it returns the next file name, on the device already specified. When there are no more file it returns a null string.
Converts the integer input to a one character string. OP: $B8 OPL: CHR$ Stack: Drops the input integer, stacks the resulting string Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument if out of the range 0-255
Returns the date-time string in the form: "TUE 04 NOV 1986 10:44:29" OP: $B9 OPL: DATIM$ Stack: Stacks the resulting string
Returns the error string associated with the integer error number. OP: $BA OPL: ERR$ Stack: Drops the input integer, stacks the resulting string Errors: ER_FN_BA - bad argument (if not a byte) Calls: ER$LKUP Bugs: Returns "*** ERROR ***" if less than the lowest recognised error number.
Returns the floating point number as a string with a fixed number of decimal places. OP: $BB OPL: FIX$ Para1: The floating point number Para2: The require number of decimal places Para3: The field size Stack: Drops input parameters, stacks the resulting string Calls: MT_FBDC Bugs: If the number does not fit, '*'s are inserted
Returns the floating point number as a string. This is the same format as used by QCO_PRINT_NUM. OP: $BC OPL: GEN$ Stack: Drops the floating point number Calls: MT_FBGN Bugs: If the number does not fit, '*'s are inserted The format in which the number is displayed is integer, decimal or scientific in that order of precedence.
Get a character and return it as a one character string. OP: $BD OPL: GET$ Stack: Stack the resulting string Calls: KB$GETK Bugs: The ON/CLEAR key returns a valid string. It can be difficult to break out of a tight loop with a GET$ using ON/CLEAR, Q keys. With perseverance it is normally possible.
Converts the integer into a hexadecimal string. OP: $BE OPL: HEX$ Stack: Drops input integer, stacks resulting string Calls: UT_XTOB Bugs: Input must be in the integer range.
Returns any keys in the input buffer as a string. Returns the null string if no key is waiting. OP: $BF OPL: KEY$ Stack: Stack the string Calls: KB$TEST, KB$GETK Bugs: Except after an "ESCAPE OFF" statement, KEY cannot pick up the ON/CLEAR key. ON/CLEAR key normally suspends OPL execution.
Returns the first n characters of the string. OP: $C0 OPL: LEFT$ Para1: The string Para2: Number of characters to keep Stack: Drops the input parameters, stacks the resulting string Bugs: If the string is shorter than the number of characters the entire string is returned.
Converts the string to lower case. OP: $C1 OPL: LOWER$ Stack: Drops the input string, stacks the result
Returns the middle of a string. OP: $C2 OPL: MID$ Para1: The string Para2: The start character Para3: The number of characters to be kept Stack: Drops the input parameters, stacks the resulting string Bugs: If there are insufficient characters the rest of the string is returned. You can get all the characters after the n'th by the statement: MID$(a$,n,255)
Converts a number to an integer string. OP: $C3 OPL: NUM$ Para1: The floating point number Para2: The maximum size of the string Stack: Drops the input parameters, stacks the resulting string. Calls: MT_FBIN Bugs: If the number does not fit, '*'s are inserted The number does not have to be in usual integer range.
Returns the last n characters of a string. OP: $C4 OPL: RIGHT$ Para1: The string Para2: The number of characters wanted Stack: Drops the input parameters, stacks the resulting string Bugs: If the string is shorter than the number of characters the entire string is returned.
Repeats the string n times. OP: $C5 OPL: REPT$ Para1: The string Para2: The repeat count Stack: Drops the integer and input string, stacks the result Bugs: If the repeat count is zero no error is given. Errors: ER_MT_FN - function argument error ER_LX_ST - string too long
Returns the floating point number as a string in scientific form. OP: $C6 OPL: SCI$ Para1: The floating point number Para2: Number of decimal places required Para3: Field width Stack: Drops the floating point number, stacks the result Calls: MT_FBEX Bugs: If the number does not fit, '*'s are inserted
Converts the string to upper case. OP: $C7 OPL: UPPER$ Stack: Drops the input string, stacks the result
Calls machine code. OP: $C8 OPL: USR$ Para1: Address of the machine code Para2: The value to be passed in the D register Stack: Drops the parameters, stacks the string pointed at by the X register
Before a file is created a check is made that no file exists with the specified
name on that device. The first unused record number over $90 is assigned to
the file and the file name record is written to the device. The process then
continues in the same way as opening a file.
The file name records are type $81. The file name record for a file called
"AMANDA", with record file type $95 looks like:
09 81 41 4D 41 4E 44 41 20 20 20 95
First the file name record is located to ensure that the file exists. The file record type and the device on which the file was found are saved in the file block (RTT_FILE). The field names are saved in the allocator field name cell corresponding to the logical name and the file buffer cell is expanded to 256 bytes. The record position is initialised to 1 and the first record, if it exists, is read.
If the file has just been created or the record is empty the current record will be null and the EOF flag is set.
See section 126.96.36.199.1 for the format of the file blocks.
17.11.3 LOGICAL FILE NAMES
Up to 4 files may be open at one time; to distinguish between then logical file names are used. The 4 logical file names: A,B,C, and D, are used to determine which file is to be operated on by the file commands.
This means that you can open files in any order but have a constant way of referring to them. The USE operator selects which file is affected by the following commands:
APPEND BACK CLOSE ERASE FIRST NEXT LAST POSITION UPDATE
and the following functions:
COUNT DISP EOF FIND POS RECSIZE SPACE
17.11.4 USING FILES
There is no functional difference between the logical file names.
When opening a file the file name record and the first record are located; two cells, one a buffer and one for the field names are grown. Closing a file entails the two cells being shrunk.
All references to fields must include the logical file name. This serves two purposes; it allows statements such as "A.MAX=B.VALUE" and it allows the language to distinguish between ordinary variables and field names.
17.12 PROCEDURE CALLS
To write compact, fast code it is important to understand the way procedures are loaded and automatically overlaid.
A procedure call consists of a procedure name followed by up to 16 parameters. The procedure name may include an optional '$' or '%' but must terminate with a ':'. If parameters are supplied they must be separated by commas and be enclosed in brackets.
There are two main types of procedure. In standard OPL procedures the Q code is loaded onto the stack and then executed. The second type are known as a device procedure or language extensions; they are identical to standard procedures in appearance, but differs in that it is recognised by the device lookup and runs as self-contained machine code.
17.12.1 STANDARD PROCEDURES
When a QCO_PROC operator is encountered the parameters will already be on the stack, along with the parameter count and the parameter types. After the operator is the name of the procedure.
The following list of actions are then carried out:
The code is loaded every time a procedure is called. This means that recursive procedures are allowed but that the stack will grow by the size of the Q code + data space + overhead for each call. On an XP, following a Reset, the procedure:
RECURS:(I%) IF I% RECURS:(I%-1) ENDIF
allows values up to 315 before an 'OUT OF MEMORY' error is given.
See EXAMPLE 3.
17.12.2 LANGUAGE EXTENSIONS
Language extension are also referred to as device procedures. Examples are LINPUT, LSET and LTRIG in the RS232 interface.
To test if a procedure is a language extension, call DV$LKUP. This looks through the devices loaded in order of priority. If a language extension is found it returns with carry clear, the device number in the A register and the vector number in the B register, suitable for an immediate call to DV$VECT to run the code.
The machine code should check that any parameters that have been passed are correct, do whatever it has to do, add the return variable to the stack and return. It is essential to return the right variable type. If the extension name terminates with a '$' it must return a string, if with a '%' it requires an integer, otherwise an 8 byte floating point number.
Note that a variable number of parameters can be passed to a device.
As a simple example, consider a language extension to add two integers without giving an error if the sum overflows. If only one parameter is given the value is simply incremented, again without giving an error. The assembler for this extension called "ADD%" is:
XADD: LDX RTA_SP: LDA A,0,X BEQ 1$ ; wrong number of parameters DEC A BEQ INCREM ; increment 1 parameter DEC A BEQ XXADD ; add the two 1$: LDA B,#ER_RT_NP ; wrong number of parameters SEC ; bad return RTS INCREM: LDA A,1,X ; load parameter type BNE WRGTYP ; branch if not integer LDD 2,X ADDD #1 EXIT: DEX DEX STX RTA_SP: STD 0,X ; save return value CLC ; good return RTS XXADD: LDA A,1,X BNE WRGTYP ; branch if not integer LDA A,4,X BNE WRGTYP ; branch if not integer LDD 2,X ; and add the two integers ADDD 5,X BRA EXIT WRGTYP: lda b,#ER_FN_BA ; report wrong parameters type SEC ; bad return RTS
See chapter 11 for the necessary pack header.
17.13 WRITING OPL
Like any programming language there is an infinite number of approaches to every problem. The aim should be to produce fast, compact Q code that runs in a minimum of memory but is also easy to write and understand. These aims inevitably conflict with each other; the correct balance varies from application to application.
For example, the decision to use a separate procedure, rather than writing the code in line, is a matter of considering the difference in Q code size, the extra stack required at run time, the time overhead required to load and return from a procedure and finally style.
It is impossible to give definitive rules on writing code but it is worth taking the following points into account.
17.13.1 COMPACT Q CODE
17.13.2 COMPACT ON RUN TIME
17.13.3 FAST CODE
Each operand/operator has an overhead of .05 ms. Most integer based operands/operators are very fast and run in less than .1 ms.
The following timings are rough and should only be used as a guide:
OPERAND Time (ms) RND 10 AT .15 PRINT a string .5 INT_TO_NUM 2.5 NUM_TO_INT 2 SIN/COS 150 TAN 350 ATAN 170 SQR 240 EXP 130 LOG/LN 200 Integer add/subtract .1 Integer multiply/divide 1 Floating point add/subtract 3 Floating point multiply 10 Floating point divide 20 Accessing a field 5
PRINT_CR has a default delay of 500 milliseconds. This value can be altered by poking the value in DPW_DELY.
The smallest time overhead on loading, and returning form a procedure is 8 ms. This overhead increases if the procedure follows other blocks or records on the device. It also increases if the procedure is not on the same device as the top level procedure (as it will have to search that device first). See chapter 12 for a full explanation of the storage mechanism.
Some of the file operators have to count up the pack each time they are used. For the sake of speed NEXT remembers its position on each of the packs. However it only remembers one position on each pack so:
USE B NEXT A.MAX=B.VAL USE A APPEND
where file A is on B: and file B on C: is significantly faster than if they are both on the same device.
BACK however always has to count up the pack to locate a record and this can take a noticeable time. Remember that erased records, as well as readable ones, will slow down the location of a record.
17.13.4 CODE STYLE
Before starting to write a program (which normally will consist of a number of procedures) first decide the relative importance of speed of execution, compactness of the Q code and the amount of stack used.
Then rough out the procedure structure. For example, in the case of the finance pack the main procedure is called FINS:
fins: local i%,j% do i%=menu("BANK,EXPENSES,NPV,IRR,COMPOUND,BOND,MORTGAGE,APR,END") if i%=1 : bank: elseif i%=2 : expenses: elseif i%=3 : npv: elseif i%=4 : irr: elseif i%=5 do j%=menu("VALUE,FUTURE,PAYMENT,DURATION,INTEREST,END") if j%=1 : value: elseif j%=2 : future: elseif j%=3 : payment: elseif j%=4 : duration: elseif j%=5 : interest: endif until j%=0 or j%=6 elseif i%=6 : bond: elseif i%=7 : mortgage: elseif i%=8 : apr: endif until i%=0 or i%=9
Your style may vary if you are writing on the emulator or the ORGANISER itself. On the ORGANISER it is worth, as a general rule, making only limited use of the ':' option to have more than one statement on a line. On the emulator you may prefer to write multiple statements on a line. The procedure above was written using a full screen editor which is reflected in the elegant use of non-functional spaces.
It is very helpful to indent the code by logical function. This is very useful in matching IF/ENDIF and loop commands.
Comment the code. The logic may seem very obvious when you write it but other people may want to read it, or you may return to the code after several months. In most cases the extra space taken by the comments is well worth it. Remember that comments make no difference to the Q code size.
Use brackets if you are unsure of the operator precedence. This adds nothing to the Q code size but makes your intentions absolutely clear.
When using the ':' separator it is not necessary to precede it by a space when the preceding characters cannot be taken as a variable name. So "A%=1:B%=2" is valid but "A%=B%:B%=C%" gives a syntax error. It can, however, save time and make the code more readable if you always proceed the ':' separator with a space.
The translator scans the source code, statement by statement, translating it into Q code. All expressions are converted to reverse polish (postfix) form so that, at run time, the operators can be executed as soon as they are encountered.
It is beyond the scope of this document to describe the detailed working of the translator. Fortunately, such a description is not necessary in order to understand either the execution of the code or the writing of efficient code.
17.15 SYSTEM SERVICES INTERFACE
VECTOR NUMBER: 100
X register - points at the name of the procedure
B register - if set then runs the calculator
OUTPUT VALUES: None
Runs the language by loading and running the OPL procedure. The procedure can not have any parameters.
For example, to run a procedure called BOOT:
LDX pname ; address of the name of the procedure LDA B,#BLANTYP OS FL$BOPN ; test that procedure exists BCS 2$ LDX pname ; address of the name of the procedure CLR B OS RM$RUNP BCC 1$ 2$: OS ER$MESS ; report error 1$: RTS
ERRORS: Any error is possible
If the procedure does not exist the error message will contain a garbage name.
Every time RM$RUNP is run the language re-initialises, it resets RTA_SP to BTA_SBAS, zeroes all the file cells and close all the files.
VECTOR NUMBER: 079
0 translating language procedures
1 translating CALC expressions
2 locating errors in CALC
3 locating errors in language procedures
X register - offset in Q code to run time error ignored if B register 0 or 1.
translated result, if successful, in OCODCELL
If an error is detected:
X register - offset to error in TEXTCELL
B register - error number
Runs the translator.
CLR B ; translate language procedure OS LN$STRT BCC 1$ OS ER$MESS ; report error 1$: RTS
If the B register is 2 or 3 and the value of X is greater than the length of the Q code, in other words you are asking for an error past the end of the code, the effect is unpredictable.
17.16 MACHINE CODE INTERFACE
From the information in this chapter, the programmer knows exactly where everything is on the stack.
When variables are declared they are used in order, so:
LOCAL A%,B% PRINT ADDR(A%)=ADDR(B%)+2 GET
will print -1, i.e. TRUE.
See section 188.8.131.52 for details of where machine code can be permanently hidden.
For short machine code routines you can use this crude, but effective, procedure:
LOADR:(ADDR%,CODE$) LOCAL A%,B1%,B2%,I% A%=ADDR% I%=1 WHILE I%9 :B1%=B1%-7 :ENDIF B2%=ASC(MID$(CODE$,I%+1,1))-%0 IF B2%>9 :B2%=B2%-7 :ENDIF POKEB A%,B1%*16+B2% A%=A%+1 I%=I%+2 ENDWH
When calling this procedure you must pass the machine code in digital form and the address where to put the machine code. It is essential that the programmer ensures there is enough room for the machine code at the address given.
A calling sequence might look like:
MAIN: GLOBAL MC%,MC$(10) MINIT: :REM Initialise the machine code .. CELL%=USR(MC%,100) :REM GRABs a cell of size 100 IF CELL%=0 PRINT "No cell free" GET :RAISE 0 ENDIF .. RETURN MINIT: A$="3F012403CE000039" IF LEN(A$)/2>LEN(MC$) PRINT "Not enough room for MC" GET :RAISE 0 ENDIF MC%=ADDR(MC$) LOADR:(MC%,A$)
The machine code is:
OS AL$GRAB BCC 1$ LDX #0 1$: RTS
17.17 EXCEPTION HANDLING
17.17.1 ERROR HANDLING
When an error is first detected the following actions are taken:
If the error is ER_RT_UE (undefined external) then the externals which are undefined are displayed with DP$VIEW.
If the error is ER_RT_PN (procedure not found) then the name of the procedure not found is displayed (as well as the procedure where it was called).
17.17.2 OUT OF MEMORY
Every time round the top loop the difference between RTA_SP and ALA_FREE is calculated. If this difference is less than 256 bytes, "OUT OF MEMORY" is reported. Note that no operand or operator can grow the stack by more than 256 bytes.
The filing system can also generate the "PACK FULL" error if it detects that after an operation fewer than 256 bytes will be free on device A. In this case it means essentially the same thing as "OUT OF MEMORY".
The only time when OPL uses memory, other than on the stack, is when it opens files. See section 17.11.2.
17.17.3 LOW BATTERY
If the voltage goes below the threshold value (5.2 volts) while the language is running, it is detected either in the top loop or during the execution of an operator. In either case it is treated as a standard error. If no error handling is in force, the error is reported and the machine turns off.
If the error is handled by an ONERR, the low battery error number is saved in RTB_EROR. It is not reported again by the top level until the battery voltage has gone back above the minimum voltage. This allows the procedure to take some action (e.g. to turn the organiser off). If the procedure just continues on the battery will eventually die completely and there is a risk of having to cold boot the machine.
Note that the battery is more likely to drop below the threshold voltage when devices, such as the packs or the RS232 interface, are switched on because they drain substantially more current than the Organiser by itself. See section 3.2 for more details of the power drain of different devices. Also note that a battery naturally recovers some of its power after being turned off for a while.
17.17.4 ON/CLEAR KEY
In normal operation pressing the ON/CLEAR key results in the execution of the language being frozen until another key is pressed. If the key pressed is 'Q','q' or '6' it creates an error condition ER_RT_BK. If there is no user error handling, execution of the language will terminate.
If ESCAPE OFF has been executed then the ON/CLEAR key has no special effect.
In an input statement then the ON/CLEAR key acts in one of 3 different ways:
See QCO_INPUT_INT, QCO_INPUT_NUM, QCO_INPUT_STR, RTF_GET, RTF_SGET, RTF_KEY and RTF_SKEY.
OPL is a powerful flexible language and as such it has the potential to crash the operating system or get into an infinite loop. This is particularly unfortunate in the case of the ORGANISER because all the data held in device A: is lost when the machine re-boots. For extensive development of 'dangerous' routines a RAMPACK has a lot to recommend it.
There are trivial ways to crash such as poking system variables or using USR function with wrong addresses or bad machine code. It is impossible to describe all the other ways in which such problems can arise. The examples listed below show the most obvious ways in the simplest possible form.
ESCAPE OFF :DO :UNTIL 0 :REM Impossible to get out
WHILE GET :ENDWH :REM Hard to get out of
DO :KEY :UNTIL 0 :REM Hard to get out of
A:: ONERR A:: :RAISE 0 :REM Impossible to get out
A:: ONERR A:: :DO :UNTIL 0 :REM Impossible to get out
Error handling is best added at the end of a development cycle. Turning ESCAPE OFF substantially increases the chances of getting into an infinite loop from which there is no exit.
17.18 INDEX OF OPERANDS
00 QI_INT_SIM_FP 0D QI_LS_INT_SIM_FP 1A QI_INT_FLD 01 QI_NUM_SIM_FP 0E QI_LS_NUM_SIM_FP 1B QI_NUM_FLD 02 QI_STR_SIM_FP 0F QI_LS_STR_SIM_FP 1C QI_STR_FLD 03 QI_INT_ARR_FP 10 QI_LS_INT_ARR_FP 1D QI_LS_INT_FLD 04 QI_NUM_ARR_FP 11 QI_LS_NUM_ARR_FP 1E QI_LS_NUM_FLD 05 QI_STR_ARR_FP 12 QI_LS_STR_ARR_FP 1F QI_LS_STR_FLD 06 QI_NUM_SIM_ABS 13 QI_LS_NUM_SIM_ABS 20 QI_STK_LIT_BYTE 07 QI_INT_SIM_IND 14 QI_LS_INT_SIM_IND 21 QI_STK_LIT_WORD 08 QI_NUM_SIM_IND 15 QI_LS_NUM_SIM_IND 22 QI_INT_CON 09 QI_STR_SIM_IND 16 QI_LS_STR_SIM_IND 23 QI_NUM_CON 0A QI_INT_SIM_IND 17 QI_LS_INT_SIM_IND 24 QI_STR_CON 0B QI_NUM_SIM_IND 18 QI_LS_NUM_SIM_IND 0C QI_STR_SIM_IND 19 QI_LS_STR_SIM_IND
17.19 INDEX OF OPERATORS
25 QCO_SPECIAL 47 QCO_GT_STR 69 QCO_USE 26 QCO_BREAK 48 QCO_GTE_STR 6A QCO_KSTAT 27 QCO_LT_INT 49 QCO_NE_STR 6B QCO_EDIT 28 QCO_LTE_INT 4A QCO_EQ_STR 6C QCO_INPUT_INT 29 QCO_GT_INT 4B QCO_ADD_STR 6D QCO_INPUT_NUM 2A QCO_GTE_INT 4C QCO_AT 6E QCO_INPUT_STR 2B QCO_NE_INT 4D QCO_BEEP 6F QCO_PRINT_INT 2C QCO_EQ_INT 4E QCO_CLS 70 QCO_PRINT_NUM 2D QCO_ADD_INT 4F QCO_CURSOR 71 QCO_PRINT_STR 2E QCO_SUB_INT 50 QCO_ESCAPE 72 QCO_PRINT_SP 2F QCO_MUL_INT 51 QCO_GOTO 73 QCO_PRINT_CR 30 QCO_DIV_INT 52 QCO_OFF 74 QCO_LPRINT_INT 31 QCO_POW_INT 53 QCO_ONERR 75 QCO_LPRINT_NUM 32 QCO_UMIN_INT 54 QCO_PAUSE 76 QCO_LPRINT_STR 33 QCO_NOT_INT 55 QCO_POKEB 77 QCO_LPRINT_SP 34 QCO_AND_INT 56 QCO_POKEW 78 QCO_LPRINT_CR 35 QCO_OR_INT 57 QCO_RAISE 79 QCO_RETURN 36 QCO_LT_NUM 58 QCO_RANDOMIZE 7A QCO_RETURN_NOUGHT 37 QCO_LTE_NUM 59 QCO_STOP 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO 38 QCO_GT_NUM 5A QCO_TRAP 7C QCO_RETURN_NULL 39 QCO_GTE_NUM 5B QCO_APPEND 7D QCO_PROC 3A QCO_NE_NUM 5C QCO_CLOSE 7E QCO_BRA_FALSE 3B QCO_EQ_NUM 5D QCO_COPY 7F QCO_ASS_INT 3C QCO_ADD_NUM 5E QCO_CREATE 80 QCO_ASS_NUM 3D QCO_SUB_NUM 5F QCO_DELETE 81 QCO_ASS_STR 3E QCO_MUL_NUM 60 QCO_ERASE 82 QCO_DROP_BYTE 3F QCO_DIV_NUM 61 QCO_FIRST 83 QCO_DROP_WORD 40 QCO_POW_NUM 62 QCO_LAST 84 QCO_DROP_NUM 41 QCO_UMIN_NUM 63 QCO_NEXT 85 QCO_DROP_STR 42 QCO_NOT_NUM 64 QCO_BACK 86 QCO_INT_TO_NUM 43 QCO_AND_NUM 65 QCO_OPEN 87 QCO_NUM_TO_INT 44 QCO_OR_NUM 66 QCO_POSITION 88 QCO_END_FIELDS 45 QCO_LT_STR 67 QCO_RENAME 89 QCO_RUN_ASSEM 46 QCO_LTE_STR 68 QCO_UPDATE
17.20 INDEX OF FUNCTIONS
8A RTF_ADDR A0 RTF_VIEW B6 RTF_SPACE 8B RTF_ASC A1 RTF_YEAR B7 RTF_DIR 8C RTF_DAY A2 RTF_COUNT B8 RTF_CHR 8D RTF_DISP A3 RTF_EOF B9 RTF_DATIM 8E RTF_ERR A4 RTF_EXIST BA RTF_SERR 8F RTF_FIND A5 RTF_POS BB RTF_FIX 90 RTF_FREE A6 RTF_ABS BC RTF_GEN 91 RTF_GET A7 RTF_ATAN BD RTF_SGET 92 RTF_HOUR A8 RTF_COS BE RTF_HEX 93 RTF_IABS A9 RTF_DEG BF RTF_SKEY 94 RTF_INT AA RTF_EXP C0 RTF_LEFT 95 RTF_KEY AB RTF_FLT C1 RTF_LOWER 96 RTF_LEN AC RTF_INTF C2 RTF_MID 97 RTF_LOC AD RTF_LN C3 RTF_NUM 98 RTF_MENU AE RTF_LOG C4 RTF_RIGHT 99 RTF_MINUTE AF RTF_PI C5 RTF_REPT 9A RTF_MONTH B0 RTF_RAD C6 RTF_SCI 9B RTF_PEEKB B1 RTF_RND C7 RTF_UPPER 9C RTF_PEEKW B2 RTF_SIN C8 RTF_SUSR 9D RTF_RECSIZE B3 RTF_SQR C9 RTF_SADDR 9E RTF_SECOND B4 RTF_TAN 9F RTF_IUSR B5 RTF_VAL
In these examples all values are given in hexadecimal; word values are given as 4 digits, bytes as 2 digits each one separated by a space. If values are undefined they are written as **.
17.21.1 EXAMPLE 1
EX1: LOCAL A$(5) A$="ABC"
The Q code header is:
High memory 0009 size of the variables on stack 000A length of Q code 00 number of parameters type of parameter 0000 size of global area global name global type offset 0000 size of externals external name external type 0003 bytes of string fix-ups FFF7 string fix-up offset (from FP) 05 max length of string Low memory 0000 bytes of array fix-ups array fix-up offset (from FP) size of array
The Q code is:
0F FFF8 QI_LS_STR_SIM_FP 24 QI_STR_CON 03 41 42 43 "ABC" 81 QCO_ASS_STR 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO
If this program is run on a CM the stack looks like:
Initially Left Side Constant Assign On Return 3EFF '1' '1' '1' '1' '1' 3EFE 'X' 'X' 'X' 'X' 'X' 3EFD 'E' 'E' 'E' 'E' 'E' 3EFC ':' ':' ':' ':' ':' 3EFB 'A' 'A' 'A' 'A' 'A' 3EFA 05 05 05 05 05 3EF9 00 - Top proc 00 00 00 00 3EF8 00 - No. paras 00 00 00 00 3EF6 3EF9 - Return PC 3EF9 3EF9 3EF9 3EF9 3EF4 0000 - ONERR 0000 0000 0000 0000 3EF2 3EDB - BASE SP 3EDB 3EDB 3EDB 3EDB 3EF0 0000 - FP 0000 0000 0000 0000 3EEE 3EEE - Global table 3EEE 3EEE 3EEE 3EEE 3EED 00 00 00 00 00 3EEC 00 00 00 00 00 3EEB 00 00 'C' 'C' 'C' 3EEA 00 00 'B' 'B' 'B' 3EE9 00 00 'A' 'A' 'A' 3EE8 00 00 03 03 03 3EE7 05 05 05 05 05 3EE6 ** ** ** ** ** 3EE5 ** ** ** ** ** 3EE4 QCO_RETURN_ZERO 7B 7B 7B 7B 3EE3 QCO_ASS_STR 81 81 81 81 3EE2 'C' 'C' 'C' 'C' 'C' 3EE1 'B' 'B' 'B' 'B' 'B' 3EE0 'A' 'A' 'A' 'A' 'A' 3EDF 03 03 03 03 03 3EDE QI_STR_CON 24 24 24 24 3EDC FFF8 FFF8 FFF8 FFF8 FFF8 3EDB QI_LS_STR_SIM_FP 0F 0F 0F 0F 3EDA ** 3EE8 3EE8 ** 00 3ED9 ** 05 05 ** 00 3ED8 ** 00 00 ** 00 3ED7 ** ** 'C' ** 00 3ED6 ** ** 'B' ** 00 3ED5 ** ** 'A' ** 00 3ED4 ** ** 03 ** 00 3ED3 ** ** ** ** 00 3ED2 ** ** ** ** 00 FP 3EF0 3EF0 3EF0 3EF0 PC 3EDB 3EDE 3EE3 3EE4 SP 3EDB 3ED8 3ED4 3EDB
17.21.2 EXAMPLE 2
When a file is created the operator QCO_CREATE is followed by the logical name to use and the field type and names. The list is terminated by the operator QCO_END_FIELDS.
is translated as the Q code:
24 QI_STR_CON 05 42 3A 41 42 43 "B:ABC" 5E QCO_CREATE 01 Logical name B 02 Type string 04 41 41 41 24 "AAA$" 00 Type integer 02 42 25 "B%" 01 Type floating point 02 43 43 "CC" 88 QCO_END_FIELDS
17.21.3 EXAMPLE 3
The recursive example given in 17.12.1:
RECURS:(I%) IF I% RECURS:(I%-1) ENDIF
Looks like this on the stack:
Address Contents Description 3D5A 0010 Parameter 3D59 00 Parameter type 3D58 01 Number of parameters 3D57 41 Device A 3D55 3D6D Return RTA_PC 3D53 0000 ONERR address 3D51 3D29 BASE SP 3D4F 3D82 Previous FP 3D4D 3D4D Globals start address 3D4B 3D5A Indirect address to parameter 3D49 ** 3D48 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO 3D47 84 QCO_DROP_NUM 3D40 "RECURS" 3D3F 7D QCO_PROC 3D3E 01 3D3D 20 QCO_STK_LIT_BYTE 3D3C 00 3D3B 20 QCO_STK_LIT_BYTE 3D3A 2E QCO_SUB_INT 3D38 0001 3D37 22 QI_INT_CON 3D35 FFFC 3D34 07 QI_INT_SIM_IND 3D32 001B 3D31 7E QCO_BRA_FALSE 3D2F FFFC 3D2E 07 QI_INT_SIM_IND 3D2C 000F Parameter for next call 3D2B 00 parameter type 3D2A 01 parameter count Note that the top 4 byte and the bottom 4 bytes are almost identical, this is shown at the point where the procedure is about to be invoked: RTA_PC 3D3F RTA_SP 3D2A RTA_FP 3D4F
17.21.4 EXAMPLE 4
EX4:(PPP$) LOCAL A$(5) GLOBAL B,C%(3),D$(5) J$=PPP$
The Q code header is:
0035 size of the variables on stack 0008 size of Q code length 01 number of parameters 02 type of parameter 0011 size of global area 01 42 global name 01 global type FFE1 offset 02 43 25 global name 03 global type FFD9 offset 02 44 24 global name 02 global type FFD3 offset 0004 bytes of externals 02 4A 24 external name 02 external type 0006 bytes of string fix-ups FFCB string fix-up offset (from FP) 05 max length of string FFD2 string fix-up offset (from FP) 05 max length of string 0004 bytes of array fix-ups FFD9 array fix-up offset (from FP) 0003 size of array
The Q code is:
16 FFE9 QI_LS_STR_SIM_IND 09 FFEB QI_STR_SIM_IND 81 QCO_ASS_STR 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO
If this program is run on a CM from the procedure:
XXX: GLOBAL J$(3) EX4:("RST")
The stack looks like:
3EFA "A:XXX" 3EF9 00 Number of parameters 3EF8 00 Top procedure 3EF6 3EF9 Return PC 3EF4 0000 ONERR address 3EF2 3ED1 BASE SP 3EF0 0000 FP 3EEE 3EE8 Start of global table 3EEC 3EE4 Address of global 3EEB 02 Global type 3EE8 "J$" Global name 3EE3 03 00 00 00 00 Global J$ 3EE1 ** 3EE0 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO 3EDF 84 QCO_DROP_NUM 3EDB "EX4" 3EDA 7D QCO_PROC 3ED8 20 01 QI_STK_LIT_BYTE 3ED6 20 02 QI_STK_LIT_BYTE 3ED2 "RST" 3ED1 24 QI_STR_CON 3ECD "RST" Parameter 3ECC 02 Parameter type 3ECB 01 Number of parameters 3ECA 00 Device A: 3EC8 3EDA Return PC 3EC6 0000 ONERR 3EC4 3E83 BASE SP 3EC2 3EF0 FP 3EC0 3EAF Start global table 3EBE 3E95 3EBD 02 3EBA 02 44 24 Global D$ 3EB8 3E9B 3EB7 03 3EB4 02 43 25 Global C%() 3EB2 3EA3 3EB1 01 3EAF 01 42 Global B 3EAD 3ECD Indirection to PPP$ 3EAB 3EE4 Indirection to J$ 3EA3 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 GLOBAL B 3E9B 00 03 00 00 00 00 00 00 GLOBAL C%() 3E94 05 00 00 00 00 00 00 GLOBAL D$ 3E8D 05 00 00 00 00 00 00 LOCAL A$ 3E8B ** 3E8A 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO 3E89 81 QCO_ASS_STR 3E87 FFEB 3E86 09 QI_STR_SIM_IND 3E84 FFE9 3E83 16 QI_LS_STR_SIM_IND
When running EX4 the offset FFE9 is added to RTA_FP (3EC2) to give 3EAB.
The address at 3EAB is 3EE4 which is the address of the global J$. This address with a non-field flag is stacked. Similarly FFEB is added to RTA_FP to give 3EAD, which contains the address 3ECD, the address of the
17.21.5 EXAMPLE 5
TOP: PRINT ABC:(GET) GET ABC:(N%) RETURN(N%*N%)
At the point when ABC: has just been called the stack looks like:
3EFA "A:TOP" 3EF9 00 NO. of parameters 3EF8 00 Top procedure 3EF6 3EF9 Return PC 3EF4 0000 ONERR address 3EF2 3EDD BASE SP 3EF0 0000 FP 3EEE 3EEE Global table 3EEC ** 3EEB 7B QCO_RETURN_ZERO 3EEA 83 QCO_DROP_WORD 3EE9 91 RTF_GET 3EE8 73 QCO_PRINT_CR 3EE7 70 QCO_PRINT_NUM 3EE3 "ABC" 3EE2 7D QCO_PROC 3EE0 20 01 QI_STK_LIT_BYTE 3EDE 20 00 QI_STK_LIT_BYTE 3EDD 91 RTF_GET 3EDB 0020 3EDA 00 Integer 3ED9 01 No. parameters 3ED8 41 Device A: 3ED6 3EE2 Return PC 3ED4 0000 ONERR 3ED2 3EC1 BASE SP 3ED0 3EF0 FP 3ECE 3ECE global table 3ECC 3EE4 Address of N% 3ECA ** 3EC9 79 QCO_RETURN 3EC8 86 QCO_INT_TO_NUM 3EC7 2F QCO_MUL_INT 3EC4 07 FFF7 QI_INT_SIM_IND 3EC1 07 FFF7 QI_INT_SIM_IND 3EBF 0020 0400 0300 3EBD 0020 ** 1024 3EBB ** ** 0000 3EB9 ** ** 0000 PC 3EC7 3EC8 3EC9